Scientists Discover Connection Between Spaying and Neutering Dogs and Cancer

Spaying and neutering have long been common practices for controlling pet populations and improving canine behavior. However, these procedures have also raised concerns about their potential health impacts, particularly their link to cancer in dogs.

Researchers are uncovering a complex relationship between spaying, neutering, and cancer in our beloved canine companions.

Spaying involves the surgical removal of a female dog's ovaries and uterus.

Photo: Pexels
Spaying involves the surgical removal of a female dog’s ovaries and uterus.

Understanding Spaying and Neutering

Before we dive into the potential risks and benefits, here’s how Canine Arthritis clarifies what spaying and neutering entail:

  • Spaying (Ovariohysterectomy): This involves removing the ovaries and uterus in female dogs, rendering them unable to reproduce. It is typically recommended to be done before the first heat cycle.
  • Neutering (Castration): In male dogs, neutering is the removal of the testicles, preventing them from producing sperm. The procedure is generally performed between six to eight months of age.
Spaying and neutering help control pet overpopulation.

Photo: Pexels
Spaying and neutering help control pet overpopulation.

The Alarming Revelation

Recent studies have unearthed a potential connection between canine sterilization and the development of certain cancers, raising questions about the long-held practice of early spaying and neutering.

Mammary Cancer and Spaying

One of the most common and deadly tumors in female dogs is mammary (breast) cancer. At least one recent study shows the timing of spaying is believed to impact its development. Spaying before the first heat cycle is associated with a mere 0.5% increased risk of developing mammary cancer. However, if spaying occurs after the second heat cycle, this risk jumps to a concerning 26%.

Further research is necessary to establish a more accurate understanding of the spaying-mammary cancer link, but the risk of mammary tumors appears to be influenced by breed, with certain breeds more prone to this type of cancer.

Spaying can reduce the risk of mammary, uterine, cervical, and ovarian cancer in female dogs.

Photo: Pexels
Spaying can reduce the risk of mammary, uterine, cervical, and ovarian cancer in female dogs.

Other Cancers and Infections

While spaying can reduce the risk of mammary, uterine, cervical, and ovarian cancers, it may increase the risk of other conditions, including osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, and certain non-cancerous diseases, Veterinary Partner reports.

Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that removing the ovaries can have a profound impact on the closure of growth plates, leading to taller dogs with altered conformation and biomechanics, potentially contributing to developmental orthopedic diseases such as hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, and cranial cruciate ligament disease.

Spaying also appears to increase the likelihood of dogs becoming overweight or obese, which is known to contribute to the development of various health conditions, including cancer.

Intact female dogs are at less risk of developing lymphoma compared to spayed females.

Photo: Pexels
Intact female dogs are at less risk of developing lymphoma compared to spayed females.

Benefits of Spaying and Neutering

It’s essential to acknowledge that spaying and neutering are not without their merits. As Humane Society International reports, these procedures play a crucial role in population control, preventing unwanted pregnancies, and curbing specific diseases, such as pyometra, an infection of the uterus that can be life-threatening.

Moreover, spaying and neutering can lead to a longer life expectancy in dogs compared to their intact counterparts. Spayed and neutered dogs are less likely to engage in roaming behavior, which can help reduce their risk of accidents and injuries, Brown University reports.

Spaying and neutering may affect the development of orthopedic diseases in certain breeds.

Photo: Pexels
Spaying and neutering may affect the development of orthopedic diseases in certain breeds.

The Influence of Breed

When discussing the connection between spaying and cancer, it’s vital to recognize that breed plays a significant role.

Studies show that some breeds, like Boxers, Brittany, English Springer and Cocker Spaniels, Dachshunds, English Setters, German Shepherds, Maltese, Miniature and Toy Poodles, Pointers, and Yorkshire Terriers, may have an increased risk of mammary cancer. Additionally, specific breeds, including Salukis, French Bulldogs, Irish Water Spaniels, Flat Coated Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherds, English Setters, and Boxers, might face a higher risk of certain cancers, reports Carolina Veterinary Specialists.

Spayed dogs may have a higher risk of obesity.

Photo: Pexels
Spayed dogs may have a higher risk of obesity.

The Need for Informed Decisions

The decision to spay or neuter your dog is multifaceted and should be made after thorough discussions with your veterinarian, considering your dog’s breed, intended activities, temperament, and your ability to prevent unwanted pregnancies. While the relationship between spaying or neutering and cancer is intricate and not yet fully understood, open conversations with your veterinarian are essential to make informed choices regarding your dog’s health.

As we await more research to provide a clearer picture of this complex issue, it’s crucial to remember that the ultimate goal is the well-being of our canine companions. Responsible pet ownership involves not only considering their long-term health but also providing them with love, care, and a safe home.

Click below to help us make a difference.

Pit Bull Prankster Luna Calls Groomer in Hilarious Mix-Up That Has the Internet Howling: Click “Next” below!

Matthew Russell is a West Michigan native and with a background in journalism, data analysis, cartography and design thinking. He likes to learn new things and solve old problems whenever possible, and enjoys bicycling, spending time with his daughters, and coffee.
Whizzco for FAP